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Programming language: Elixir
License: MIT License

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README

Discovery

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An OTP application for auto-discovering services with Consul

Requirements

  • Elixir 1.0.0 or newer

Installation

Add Discovery as a dependency in your mix.exs file

def application do
  [applications: [:discovery]]
end

defp deps do
  [
    {:discovery, "~> 0.5.0"}
  ]
end

Then run mix deps.get in your shell to fetch the dependencies.

Usage

There are two parts for automatically interconnecting services.

  • Services need to publish their status
  • Services which care about others need to poll for the statuses of the services they care about

Publishing service status

First, you'll need to install a Consul Agent on the machine which will be running the OTP application. This can be done manually, but I recommend the Consul Cookbook for Chef.

Next a service definition must be defined with a TTL for an application to report it's status to.

{
  "service": {
    "name": "my_application",
    "check": {
      "ttl": "15s"
    },
    "tags": [
      "otp_name:my_application@jamie.undeadlabs.com"
    ]
  }
}

The TTL acts as a dead man's trigger where the service will be marked as unavailable if the OTP application hasn't sent a heartbeat within the allotted TTL.

Start and supervise a Discovery.Heartbeat process in your OTP application to report your status to Consul.

defmodule MyApplication.Supervisor do
  use Supervisor

  @heartbeat_check "service:my_application"
  @heartbeat_ttl   10

  def start_link do
    Supervisor.start_link(__MODULE__, [])
  end

  def init([]) do
    children = [
      worker(Discovery.Heartbeat, [@heartbeat_check, @heartbeat_ttl]),
    ]
    supervise(children, strategy: :one_for_one)
  end
end

The value for @heartbeat_check is composed of two strings separated by a colon:

  • The first string is the type of check that we're reporting our status for; in this case a service.
  • The second string is the name of the check which was defined in the service definition above.

The value for @heartbeat_ttl a time in seconds for how often to check-in with Consul. I recommend setting this to a few seconds before the TTL configured in the service definition to allow for some breathing room and prevent false service outage blips.

If you want other OTP nodes to automatically discover and connect to you (more on that later) it is also important to note that a special tag has been added to the service definition above. Tags separated by a colon (:) are key/value pairs used by certain handlers. In this case the Discovery.NodeConnector will use the value of this key/value pair as the OTP node name to connect to another OTP node.

Polling for services

The flipside for broadcasting service status is listening for service status. For that, Discovery provides a poller process that can be started and supervised.

defmodule MyApplication.Supervisor do
  use Supervisor

  def start_link do
    Supervisor.start_link(__MODULE__, [])
  end

  def init([]) do
    children = [
      worker(Discovery.Poller, ["my_application", Discovery.Handler.NodeConnect], id: MyApplication.MyPoller),
    ]
    supervise(children, strategy: :one_for_one)
  end
end

The poller process will poll the given service health check and upon change, notify a handler process implementing Discovery.Handler.Behaviour. One or many handlers can be passed to the poller. In the above example a single handler, Discovery.Handler.NodeConnector, is registered with the poller.

If you are supervising multiple pollers it is important to specify a value for :id. Not doing so will halt startup. This can be safely ignored if you do not intend to supervise more than one poller.

Poller handler

In the previous section we passed the module Discovery.Handler.NodeConnect as an argument to Discovery.Poller when we supervised the poller. This is a poller handler.

Poller handlers implement the behaviour Discovery.Handler.Behaviour which requires a single function to be implemented, handle_services/2. This function is called whenever the poller completes and passes the services it found when performing a health check as the first argument. The second argument is the state of the event handler.

Discovery.Handler.Behaviour is actually using GenEvent under the hood

Discovery comes with two handlers

  • Discovery.Handler.NodeConnector - automatically connects OTP nodes which have been discovered by a poller
  • Discovery.Handler.Generic - executes an anonymous function with an arity of 1 with the found services

Multiple handlers can be added and they can be added with or without arguments:

def init([]) do
  children = [
    worker(Discovery.Poller, ["my_application", [
      Discovery.Handler.NodeConnect,
      {MyApplication.MyHandler, ["argument_1", "argument_2"]}
    ], id: MyApplication.MyPoller),
  ]
  supervise(children, strategy: :one_for_one)
end

An anonymous function can also act as a handler:

def init([]) do
  children = [
    worker(Discovery.Poller, ["my_application", &my_function/1], id: MyApplication.MyPoller)
  ]
  supervise(children, strategy: :one_for_one)
end

def my_function(services) do
  # do something
end

The generic handler Discovery.Handler.Generic is used under the hood if you provide an anonymous function as a handler.

Automatically connecting nodes (Handler.NodeConnect)

The node connector handler Discovery.Handler.NodeConnect will notify the registered Discovery.NodeConnector process of additional nodes and service status changes.

The Discovery.NodeConnector process will automatically connect and retry connections to other nodes when they become available. It will also sever connections when Consul reports those nodes as being no longer available.

Node.connect/1 will be be run for each registered service found by Consul. The OTP node name for each of these nodes is read from a tag written to the service definition (see above) in the form of otp_name:<name> where name is the OTP node name. So given the node name my_application@jamie.undeadlabs.com the service definition would contain a tag otp_name:my_application@jamie.undeadlabs.com.

Ensure that the --name flag is set to the proper node name before starting your OTP application. This can be set in the vm.args file or passed to Elixir on the command line.

Selecting nodes

Nodes which have been automatically discovered and connected to via Discovery.NodeConnector can be filtered or selected via a hash value.

Listing all registered nodes which provide the given service:

iex> Discovery.nodes("my_application")
[:'my_application@jamie.undeadlabs.com']

iex> Discovery.nodes("another_application")
[]

Selecting a node for a given hash value using a consistent hashing algorithm:

Discovery.select("my_application", "hashValue", fn
  {:ok, node} ->
    # do something with node
  {:error, {:no_servers, "my_application"}} ->
    # do something with error
end)

A node can also be randomly selected if the atom :random is passed as the hash value:

Discovery.select("my_application", :random, fn(result) -> IO.inspect result end)

Authors

Jamie Winsor (jamie@vialstudios.com)