Monthly Downloads: 2,286,757
Programming language: Elixir
License: Apache License 2.0
Tags: Markdown    
Latest version: v1.4.3

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<!-- DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE =====================

It is created from README.template and several docstrings by means of the mix task readme -->

Earmark—A Pure Elixir Markdown Processor

CI Hex.pm Hex.pm Hex.pm

Table Of Contents

<!-- BEGIN generated TOC -->


{ :earmark, "> x.y.z" }


<!-- BEGIN inserted moduledoc Earmark -->


Earmark now exposes a well-defined and stable Abstract Syntax Tree


WARNING: This is just a proxy towards EarmarkParser.as_ast and is deprecated, it will be removed in version 1.5!

Replace your calls to Earmark.as_ast with EarmarkParse.as_ast as soon as possible.

N.B. If all you use is Earmark.as_ast consider only using EarmarkParser.

The function is described below and the other two API functions as_html and as_html! are now based upon the structure of the result of as_ast.

{:ok, ast, []}                   = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
{:ok, ast, deprecation_messages} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)
{:error, ast, error_messages}    = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown)


{:ok, html_doc, []}                   = Earmark.as_html(markdown)
{:ok, html_doc, deprecation_messages} = Earmark.as_html(markdown)
{:error, html_doc, error_messages}    = Earmark.as_html(markdown)


html_doc = Earmark.as_html!(markdown, options)

Formats the error_messages returned by as_html and adds the filename to each. Then prints them to stderr and just returns the html_doc


Options can be passed into as_ast/2as well as as_html/2 or as_html!/2 according to the documentation.

{status, html_doc, errors} = Earmark.as_html(markdown, options)
html_doc = Earmark.as_html!(markdown, options)
{status, ast, errors} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown, options)

Command line

$ mix escript.build
$ ./earmark file.md

Some options defined in the Earmark.Options struct can be specified as command line switches.


$ ./earmark --help

to find out more, but here is a short example

$ ./earmark --smartypants false --code-class-prefix "a- b-" file.md

will call

Earmark.as_html!( ..., %Earmark.Options{smartypants: false, code_class_prefix: "a- b-"})


Standard Gruber markdown.


Github Flavored Markdown

GFM is supported by default, however as GFM is a moving target and all GFM extension do not make sense in a general context, Earmark does not support all of it, here is a list of what is supported:

Strike Through

iex(1)> Earmark.as_html! ["~~hello~~"]

Syntax Highlighting

All backquoted or fenced code blocks with a language string are rendered with the given language as a class attribute of the code tag.

For example:

iex(2)> [
...(2)>    "```elixir",
...(2)>    " @tag :hello",
...(2)>    "```"
...(2)> ] |> Earmark.as_html!()
"<pre><code class=\"elixir\"> @tag :hello</code></pre>\n"

will be rendered as shown in the doctest above.

If you want to integrate with a syntax highlighter with different conventions you can add more classes by specifying prefixes that will be put before the language string.

Prism.js for example needs a class language-elixir. In order to achieve that goal you can add language- as a code_class_prefix to Earmark.Options.

In the following example we want more than one additional class, so we add more prefixes.

Earmark.as_html!(..., %Earmark.Options{code_class_prefix: "lang- language-"})

which is rendering

<pre><code class="elixir lang-elixir language-elixir">...

As for all other options code_class_prefix can be passed into the earmark executable as follows:

earmark --code-class-prefix "language- lang-" ...


Are supported as long as they are preceded by an empty line.

State Abbrev Capital
Texas TX Austin
Maine ME Augusta

Tables may have leading and trailing vertical bars on each line

| State | Abbrev | Capital |
| ----: | :----: | ------- |
| Texas | TX     | Austin  |
| Maine | ME     | Augusta |

Tables need not have headers, in which case all column alignments default to left.

| Texas | TX     | Austin  |
| Maine | ME     | Augusta |

Currently we assume there are always spaces around interior vertical unless there are exterior bars.

However in order to be more GFM compatible the gfm_tables: true option can be used to interpret only interior vertical bars as a table if a seperation line is given, therefor

Language Rating
Elixir awesome

is a table (iff gfm_tables: true) while

 Elixir  | awesome

never is.

HTML Blocks

HTML is not parsed recursively or detected in all conditons right now, though GFM compliance is a goal.

But for now the following holds:

A HTML Block defined by a tag starting a line and the same tag starting a different line is parsed as one HTML AST node, marked with %{verbatim: true}


  iex(3)> lines = [ "<div><span>", "some</span><text>", "</div>more text" ]
  ...(3)> {:ok, _, _} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(lines)
  {:ok, [{"div", [], ["<span>", "some</span><text>"], %{verbatim: true}}, "more text"], []}

And a line starting with an opening tag and ending with the corresponding closing tag is parsed in similar fashion

  iex(4)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(["<span class=\"superspan\">spaniel</span>"])
  {:ok, [{"span", [{"class", "superspan"}], ["spaniel"], %{verbatim: true}}], []}

What is HTML?

We differ from strict GFM by allowing all tags not only HTML5 tagsn this holds for oneliners....

  iex(5)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(["<stupid />", "<not>better</not>"])
  ...(5)> ast
    {"stupid", [], [], %{verbatim: true}},
    {"not", [], ["better"], %{verbatim: true}}]

and for multiline blocks

  iex(6)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast([ "<hello>", "world", "</hello>"])
  ...(6)> ast
  [{"hello", [], ["world"], %{verbatim: true}}]

HTML Comments

Are recoginized if they start a line (after ws and are parsed until the next --> is found all text after the next '-->' is ignored


iex(7)> EarmarkParser.as_ast(" <!-- Comment\ncomment line\ncomment --> text -->\nafter")
{:ok, [{:comment, [], [" Comment", "comment line", "comment "], %{comment: true}}, {"p", [], ["after"], %{}}], []}

Adding HTML attributes with the IAL extension

To block elements

HTML attributes can be added to any block-level element. We use the Kramdown syntax: add the line {: attrs } following the block.

attrs can be one or more of:

  • .className
  • #id
  • name=value, name="value", or name='value'

For example:

# Warning
{: .red}

Do not turn off the engine
if you are at altitude.
{: .boxed #warning spellcheck="true"}

It is possible to add IAL attributes to generated links or images in the following format.

iex(8)> markdown = "[link](url) {: .classy}"
...(8)> Earmark.as_html(markdown)
{ :ok, "<p>\n<a class=\"classy\" href=\"url\">link</a></p>\n", []}

For both cases, malformed attributes are ignored and warnings are issued.

iex(9)> [ "Some text", "{:hello}" ] |> Enum.join("\n") |> Earmark.as_html()
{:error, "<p>\nSome text</p>\n", [{:warning, 2,"Illegal attributes [\"hello\"] ignored in IAL"}]}

It is possible to escape the IAL in both forms if necessary

iex(10)> markdown = "[link](url)\\{: .classy}"
...(10)> Earmark.as_html(markdown)
{:ok, "<p>\n<a href=\"url\">link</a>{: .classy}</p>\n", []}

This of course is not necessary in code blocks or text lines containing an IAL-like string, as in the following example

iex(11)> markdown = "hello {:world}"
...(11)> Earmark.as_html!(markdown)
"<p>\nhello {:world}</p>\n"


  • Block-level HTML is correctly handled only if each HTML tag appears on its own line. So


will work. However. the following won't

  • John Gruber's tests contain an ambiguity when it comes to lines that might be the start of a list inside paragraphs.

One test says that

    This is the text
    * of a paragraph
    that I wrote

is a single paragraph. The "*" is not significant. However, another test has

    *   A list item
        * an another

and expects this to be a nested list. But, in reality, the second could just be the continuation of a paragraph.

I've chosen always to use the second interpretation—a line that looks like a list item will always be a list item.

  • Rendering of block and inline elements.

Block or void HTML elements that are at the absolute beginning of a line end the preceding paragraph.


    <hr />


    <hr />


     <hr />

will be transformed into

     <hr /></p>


By default, that is if the timeout option is not set Earmark uses parallel mapping as implemented in Earmark.pmap/2, which uses Task.await with its default timeout of 5000ms.

In rare cases that might not be enough.

By indicating a longer timeout option in milliseconds Earmark will use parallel mapping as implemented in Earmark.pmap/3, which will pass timeout to Task.await.

In both cases one can override the mapper function with either the mapper option (used if and only if timeout is nil) or the mapper_with_timeout function (used otherwise).

For the escript only the timeout command line argument can be used.


Please be aware that Markdown is not a secure format. It produces HTML from Markdown and HTML. It is your job to sanitize and or filter the output of Earmark.as_html if you cannot trust the input and are to serve the produced HTML on the Web.

<!-- END inserted moduledoc Earmark -->



<!-- BEGIN inserted functiondoc Earmark.as_ast/2 --> as_ast is a compatibility function to call EarmarkParser.as_ast

It is deprecated and will be removed in 1.5!

Options are passes like to as_html, some do not have an effect though (e.g. smartypants) as formatting and escaping is not done for the AST.

  iex(12)> markdown = "```elixir\nIO.puts 42\n```"
  ...(12)> {:ok, ast, []} = EarmarkParser.as_ast(markdown, code_class_prefix: "lang-")
  ...(12)> ast
  [{"pre", [], [{"code", [{"class", "elixir lang-elixir"}], ["IO.puts 42"], %{}}], %{}}]

<!-- END inserted functiondoc Earmark.as_ast/2 -->


<!-- BEGIN inserted functiondoc Earmark.as_html/2 --> Given a markdown document (as either a list of lines or a string containing newlines), returns a tuple containing either {:ok, html_doc, error_messages}, or {:error, html_doc, error_messages} Where html_doc is an HTML representation of the markdown document and error_messages is a list of tuples with the following elements

  • severity e.g. :error, :warning or :deprecation
  • line number in input where the error occurred
  • description of the error

options can be an %Earmark.Options{} structure, or can be passed in as a Keyword argument (with legal keys for %Earmark.Options

  • renderer: ModuleName

The module used to render the final document. Defaults to Earmark.HtmlRenderer

  • gfm: boolean

True by default. Turns on the supported Github Flavored Markdown extensions

  • breaks: boolean

Only applicable if gfm is enabled. Makes all line breaks significant (so every line in the input is a new line in the output.

  • code_class_prefix: binary

Code blocks will be rendered with prefixed class names, which might be necessary for usage with 3rd party libraries.

    Earmark.as_html("```elixir\nCode\n```", code_class_prefix: "my_prefix_")

    {:ok, "<pre><code class=\"elixir my_prefix_elixir\">Code\```</code></pre>\n", []}
  • smartypants: boolean

Turns on smartypants processing, so quotes become curly, two or three hyphens become en and em dashes, and so on. True by default.

So, to format the document in original and disable smartypants, you'd call

    alias Earmark.Options
    Earmark.as_html(original, %Options{smartypants: false})
  • pure_links: boolean

Pure links of the form ~r{\bhttps?://\S+\b} are rendered as links from now on. However, by setting the pure_links option to false this can be disabled and pre 1.4 behavior can be used.

  • compact_output: boolean

If set to true, no cosmetic newlines will be emitted by Earmark. False by default.

<!-- END inserted functiondoc Earmark.as_html/2 -->


<!-- BEGIN inserted functiondoc Earmark.Transform.transform/2 --> Needs update for 1.4.7

<!-- END inserted functiondoc Earmark.Transform.transform/2 -->


Pull Requests are happily accepted.

Please be aware of one caveat when correcting/improving README.md.

The README.md is generated by the mix task readme from README.template and docstrings by means of %moduledoc or %functiondoc directives.

Please identify the origin of the generated text you want to correct and then apply your changes there.

Then issue the mix task readme, this is important to have a correctly updated README.md after the merge of your PR.

Thank you all who have already helped with Earmark, your names are duely noted in [CHANGELOG.md](CHANGELOG.md).


Copyright © 2014,5,6,7,8 Dave Thomas, The Pragmatic Programmers @/+pragdave, [email protected]


Same as Elixir, which is Apache License v2.0. Please refer to [LICENSE](LICENSE) for details.

SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the earmark README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.