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Monthly Downloads: 1,668,651
Programming language: Elixir
License: MIT License
Tags: XML    
Latest version: v0.7.0

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README

SweetXml

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SweetXml is a thin wrapper around :xmerl. It allows you to convert a char_list or xmlElement record as defined in :xmerl to an elixir value such as map, list, string, integer, float or any combination of these.

Installation

Add dependency to your project's mix.exs:

def deps do
  [{:sweet_xml, "~> 0.7.0"}]
end

SweetXml depends on :xmerl. On some Linux systems, you might need to install the package erlang-xmerl.

Examples

Given an XML document such as below:

<?xml version="1.05" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<game>
  <matchups>
    <matchup winner-id="1">
      <name>Match One</name>
      <teams>
        <team>
          <id>1</id>
          <name>Team One</name>
        </team>
        <team>
          <id>2</id>
          <name>Team Two</name>
        </team>
      </teams>
    </matchup>
    <matchup winner-id="2">
      <name>Match Two</name>
      <teams>
        <team>
          <id>2</id>
          <name>Team Two</name>
        </team>
        <team>
          <id>3</id>
          <name>Team Three</name>
        </team>
      </teams>
    </matchup>
    <matchup winner-id="1">
      <name>Match Three</name>
      <teams>
        <team>
          <id>1</id>
          <name>Team One</name>
        </team>
        <team>
          <id>3</id>
          <name>Team Three</name>
        </team>
      </teams>
    </matchup>
  </matchups>
</game>

We can do the following:

import SweetXml
doc = "..." # as above

Get the name of the first match:

result = doc |> xpath(~x"//matchup/name/text()") # `sigil_x` for (x)path
assert result == 'Match One'

Get the XML record of the name of the first match:

result = doc |> xpath(~x"//matchup/name"e) # `e` is the modifier for (e)ntity
assert result == {:xmlElement, :name, :name, [], {:xmlNamespace, [], []},
        [matchup: 2, matchups: 2, game: 1], 2, [],
        [{:xmlText, [name: 2, matchup: 2, matchups: 2, game: 1], 1, [],
          'Match One', :text}], [],
        ...}

Get the full list of matchup name:

result = doc |> xpath(~x"//matchup/name/text()"l) # `l` stands for (l)ist
assert result == ['Match One', 'Match Two', 'Match Three']

Get a list of winner-id by attributes:

result = doc |> xpath(~x"//matchup/@winner-id"l)
assert result == ['1', '2', '1']

Get a list of matchups with different map structure:

result = doc |> xpath(
  ~x"//matchups/matchup"l,
  name: ~x"./name/text()",
  winner: [
    ~x".//team/id[.=ancestor::matchup/@winner-id]/..",
    name: ~x"./name/text()"
  ]
)
assert result == [
  %{name: 'Match One', winner: %{name: 'Team One'}},
  %{name: 'Match Two', winner: %{name: 'Team Two'}},
  %{name: 'Match Three', winner: %{name: 'Team One'}}
]

Or directly return a mapping of your liking:

result = doc |> xmap(
  matchups: [
    ~x"//matchups/matchup"l,
    name: ~x"./name/text()",
    winner: [
      ~x".//team/id[.=ancestor::matchup/@winner-id]/..",
      name: ~x"./name/text()"
    ]
  ],
  last_matchup: [
    ~x"//matchups/matchup[last()]",
    name: ~x"./name/text()",
    winner: [
      ~x".//team/id[.=ancestor::matchup/@winner-id]/..",
      name: ~x"./name/text()"
    ]
  ]
)
assert result == %{
  matchups: [
    %{name: 'Match One', winner: %{name: 'Team One'}},
    %{name: 'Match Two', winner: %{name: 'Team Two'}},
    %{name: 'Match Three', winner: %{name: 'Team One'}}
  ],
  last_matchup: %{name: 'Match Three', winner: %{name: 'Team One'}}
}

The ~x Sigil

In the above examples, we used the expression ~x"//some/path" to define the path. The reason is it allows us to more precisely specify what is being returned.

  • ~x"//some/path"

    without any modifiers, xpath/2 will return the value of the entity if the entity is of type xmlText, xmlAttribute, xmlPI, xmlComment as defined in :xmerl

  • ~x"//some/path"e

    e stands for (e)ntity. This forces xpath/2 to return the entity with which you can further chain your xpath/2 call

  • ~x"//some/path"l

    'l' stands for (l)ist. This forces xpath/2 to return a list. Without l, xpath/2 will only return the first element of the match

  • ~x"//some/path"k

    'k' stands for (k)eyword. This forces xpath/2 to return a Keyword instead of a Map.

  • ~x"//some/path"el - mix of the above

  • ~x"//some/path"s

    's' stands for (s)tring. This forces xpath/2 to return the value as string instead of a char list.

  • ~x"//some/path"S

    'S' stands for soft (S)tring. This forces xpath/2 to return the value as string instead of a char list, but if node content is incompatible with a string, set "".

  • ~x"//some/path"o

    'o' stands for (o)ptional. This allows the path to not exist, and will return nil.

  • ~x"//some/path"sl - string list.

  • ~x"//some/path"i

    'i' stands for (i)nteger. This forces xpath/2 to return the value as integer instead of a char list.

  • ~x//some/path"I

    'I' stands for soft (I)nteger. This forces xpath/2 to return the value as integer instead of a char list, but if node content is incompatible with an integer, set 0.

  • ~x"//some/path"f

    'f' stands for (f)loat. This forces xpath/2 to return the value as float instead of a char list.

  • ~x//some/path"F

    'F' stands for soft (F)loat. This forces xpath/2 to return the value as float instead of a char list, but if node content is incompatible with a float, set 0.0.

  • ~x"//some/path"il - integer list.

If you use the optional modifier o together with a soft cast modifier (uppercase), then the value is set to nil when the value is not compatible for instance ~x//some/path/text()"Fo return nil if the text is not a number.

Also in the examples section, we always import SweetXml first. This makes x_sigil available in the current scope. Without it, instead of using ~x, you can use the %SweetXpath struct

assert ~x"//some/path"e == %SweetXpath{path: '//some/path', is_value: false, is_list: false, cast_to: false}

Note the use of char_list in the path definition.

Namespace support

Given a XML document such as below

<?xml version="1.05" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<game xmlns="http://example.com/fantasy-league" xmlns:ns1="http://example.com/baseball-stats">
  <matchups>
    <matchup winner-id="1">
      <name>Match One</name>
      <teams>
        <team>
          <id>1</id>
          <name>Team One</name>
          <ns1:runs>5</ns1:runs>
        </team>
        <team>
          <id>2</id>
          <name>Team Two</name>
          <ns1:runs>2</ns1:runs>
        </team>
      </teams>
    </matchup>
  </matchups>
</game>

We can do the following:

import SweetXml
xml_str = "..." # as above
doc = parse(xml_str, namespace_conformant: true)

Note the fact that we explicitly parse the XML with the namespace_conformant: true option. This is needed to allow nodes to be identified in a prefix independent way.

We can use namespace prefixes of our preference, regardless of what prefix is used in the document:

result = doc
  |> xpath(~x"//ff:matchup/ff:name/text()"
           |> add_namespace("ff", "http://example.com/fantasy-league"))

assert result == 'Match One'

We can specify multiple namespace prefixes:

result = doc
  |> xpath(~x"//ff:matchup//bb:runs/text()"
           |> add_namespace("ff", "http://example.com/fantasy-league")
           |> add_namespace("bb", "http://example.com/baseball-stats"))

assert result == '5'

From Chaining to Nesting

Here's a brief explanation to how nesting came about.

Chaining

Both xpath and xmap can take an :xmerl XML record as the first argument. Therefore you can chain calls to these functions like below:

doc
|> xpath(~x"//li"l)
|> Enum.map fn (li_node) ->
  %{
    name: li_node |> xpath(~x"./name/text()"),
    age: li_node |> xpath(~x"./age/text()")
  }
end

Mapping to a structure

Since the previous example is such a common use case, SweetXml allows you just simply do the following

doc
|> xpath(
  ~x"//li"l,
  name: ~x"./name/text()",
  age: ~x"./age/text()"
)

Nesting

But what you want is sometimes more complex than just that, SweetXml thus also allows nesting

doc
|> xpath(
  ~x"//li"l,
  name: [
    ~x"./name",
    first: ~x"./first/text()",
    last: ~x"./last/text()"
  ],
  age: ~x"./age/text()"
)

Transform By

Sometimes we need to transform the value to what we need, SweetXml supports that via transform_by/2

doc = "<li><name><first>john</first><last>doe</last></name><age>30</age></li>"

result = doc |> xpath(
  ~x"//li"l,
  name: [
    ~x"./name",
    first: ~x"./first/text()"s |> transform_by(&String.capitalize/1),
    last: ~x"./last/text()"s |> transform_by(&String.capitalize/1)
  ],
  age: ~x"./age/text()"i
)

^result = [%{age: 30, name: %{first: "John", last: "Doe"}}]

The same can be used to break parsing code into reusable functions that can be used in nesting:

doc = "<li><name><first>john</first><last>doe</last></name><age>30</age></li>"

parse_name = fn xpath_node ->
  xpath_node |> xmap(
    first: ~x"./first/text()"s |> transform_by(&String.capitalize/1),
    last: ~x"./last/text()"s |> transform_by(&String.capitalize/1)
  )
end

result = doc |> xpath(
  ~x"//li"l,
  name: ~x"./name" |> transform_by(parse_name),
  age: ~x"./age/text()"i
)

^result = [%{age: 30, name: %{first: "John", last: "Doe"}}]

For more examples, please take a look at the tests and help.

Streaming

SweetXml now also supports streaming in various forms. Here's a sample XML doc. Notice the certain lines have XML tags that span multiple lines:

<?xml version="1.05" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>XML Parsing</title>
    <head><title>Nested Head</title></head>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>Neato €</p><ul>
      <li class="first star" data-index="1">
        First</li><li class="second">Second
      </li><li
            class="third">Third</li>
    </ul>
    <div>
      <ul>
        <li>Forth</li>
      </ul>
    </div>
    <special_match_key>first star</special_match_key>
  </body>
</html>

Working with File.stream!/1

Working with streams is exactly the same as working with binaries:

File.stream!("file_above.xml") |> xpath(...)

SweetXml element streaming

Once you have a file stream, you may not want to work with the entire document to save memory:

file_stream = File.stream!("file_above.xml")

result = file_stream
|> stream_tags([:li, :special_match_key])
|> Stream.map(fn
    {_, doc} ->
      xpath(doc, ~x"./text()")
  end)
|> Enum.to_list

assert result == ['\n        First', 'Second\n      ', 'Third', 'Forth', 'first star']

Warning: In case of large document, you may want to use the discard option to avoid memory leak.

result = file_stream
|> stream_tags([:li, :special_match_key], discard: [:li, :special_match_key])

Security

Whenever you have to deal with some XML that was not generated by your system (untrusted document), it is highly recommended that you separate the parsing step from the mapping step, in order to be able to prevent some default behavior through options. You can check the doc for SweetXml.parse/2 for more details. The current recommendations are:

doc |> parse(dtd: :none) |> xpath(spec, subspec)
enum |> stream_tags(tags, dtd: :none)

Copyright and License

Copyright (c) 2014, Frank Liu

SweetXml source code is licensed under the MIT License.


*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the sweet_xml README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.